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Fundamentals

A buffer overflow occurs when something very large is placed in a box far too small for it to fit. It's all gotta go somewhere. An example in code is as follows:


void func(void)
{
   int i;
   char buffer[256];   
                                  // *
   for(i=0;i<512;i++)                 
      buffer[i]='A';              // !
   
   return;
}
As you can see, our 'buffer' gets filled with 256 'A's, followed by 256 more that just don't fit. The rest of those 'A's have to go somewhere.

And where they go depends on your operating system implementation and programming language, but if you don't have automatic bounds checking like Java, I guarantee you that those 'A's are going somewhere unfortunate.

Here is a picture of a healthy 32-bit stack, in such an operating system as Windows 9x/NT running on an Intel platform. It looks like what it should look like at the point marked * in the code above.

STACK 
        ----------------
        Local Variables
ESP->   i
        Buffer
        ----------------
EBP->   Old Value of EBP
        ----------------
        Return Address
        ----------------
When the "func" procedure returns, it moves EBP back into ESP, and POP's the return address off the stack. When the above line of code marked '!' executes it overflows the buffer, writing 'A's over the old value of EBP and over the return address. By overwriting the return address, you can seriously alter the course of program flow. All you have to do is change the return address to point to a memory location of your choice, and the code you want to execute will be reached when this procedure decides to 'return'. If you stuff the buffer with code bytes, you can then reroute the EIP to them on the next RET, since the stack is considered executable memory in Windows 9x/NT on the Intel architecture.

The lesson on basics is over. If you have written a buffer overflow exploit on other operating systems or have fully mastered these basic concepts, we will go into detail on how to recognize the buffer overflow condition in Windows and proceed to detail on exploitation.

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